Every year the World Environment Day is celebrated on June 5 to spread awareness about environmental issues and to encourage people to take action towards protecting the environment. This year’s theme for World Environment Day is: Biodiversity.
According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) climate change, man-made changes, and activities that disrupt climate such as deforestation, land-use changes and intensified agriculture and wildlife trade can increase contact and spread of viruses and infectious diseases from animals to human-like COVID-19. This is the time more than ever to remind ourselves to shift to a more sustainable lifestyle and economy for both, people, and the planet.
The lockdown period has seen some positive results for the environment, there has been a massive improvement in the air quality, especially in the urban areas. According to reports, the global emission of CO2 has dropped to emission-level last seen in 2006. PM pollution-level also witnessed similar decline, in Delhi -- India’s capital and one of the most polluted cities of the world -- transportation contributes to 40 percent of pollution but air in Delhi became breathable within couple of weeks after the lockdown due to 49 percent reduction in the air quality index.
But it all comes down to how we move after lockdown, government and businesses have to consider how they can do things differently after the lockdown and after the pandemic is over to hold onto temporary improvements in the air quality. We are seeing a completely different landscape for all of us in all aspects. It would be interesting to see how we transition towards clean transportation. Talking about cleaner transport, we would like to bring an insightful talk by O.P. Agarwal CEO, World Resources Institute (WRI) India. Mr. Agarwal delivered this talk in the IESA webinar. He is a highly respected thinker and practitioner with a wealth of experience in climate-change-related development and environmental issues.
He offers a very interesting angle on clean transportation, please listen in https://bit.ly/2ZQBUN6
A: The first thing I would like to say is, when we talk of clean transport today our mind automatically goes to electric cars and other forms of ‘clean forms of fuel for transportation’ but let me take you a step back. Clean transport is not about clean fuels, but it is also about ‘clean forms of transport’. For instance, if anything that helps us avoid a trip, to me, that is clean transport. This webinar is an example of clean transport. So, this is one form of clean transport.
Second, if you can reduce the range of a trip. i.e. If we travel less than what we really need to or if we can do something in half a kilometer than 10 Km, to me, that is clean transport. Now that kind of clean transport does not come from the transportation system alone, but from our urban planning system. How are our cities designed? That is something the city planners work on. City planners are very rightly talking in terms of mixed-use development, where travel distances come down as work and residential areas are closely interspersed. So, on average, people travel shorter distances and they do not have to use their vehicle, but they can easily walk, to me that is another form of clean transport.
Finally, yet another means of clean transport is trips where many people get into a single-vehicle. That is why the National Urban Policy that the government adopted in 2006 really talks about promoting public transport, cycling, and walking as modes of sustainable transport. As a result of that policy, today, many cities are building mass transit systems, some are improving bus systems but today the flavor of the day seems many cities building metro rail systems. So, these are again forms of clean transportation even though they do not necessarily use clean fuels but because they reduce our consumption of fossil fuels so to that extent they are also examples of clean transport.
Q: Mr. Agarwal stressed on the fact that it is important to not talk of clean transportation from the ‘technology perspective’ alone but also from the ‘demand management perspective’. The results thus achieved together would be far better. Smart cities and urban transport mission should be involved in discussions on clean transportation where there will be co-location of businesses and residences to reduce the overall travel for the people. He further explained how different ministries must work together for efficient implementation of e-mobility in India.
A: EVs are a bit of a challenge, it is not only from a policymaking perspective but also from an implementation perspective. When it comes down to implementation on ground, challenges are emerging. EV implementation on the ground is challenging as it requires multiple agencies such as the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Ministry of Heavy Industry, Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Industrial Policy and Planning, Ministry of Urban Development, and Ministry of Finance – all of them to come together to get the policies in place, at the right time, in a coordinated manner to get things done. So, this kind of integration, even at the higher-level or GoI-level at the policy level needs to happen much more than it is happening today.
We should take it to the state-level, city-level, ground-level where you are talking of the transport department, the power department, the municipal corporation, the urban development department, the finance department, how do they come together? This is something that, to my mind, has been the biggest challenge in implementation. How do we get to bring different agencies to come together and take electric mobility forward?
Q: The currently developed State-EV Roadmap maybe 5000 ft view but there should be an in-depth work happening at the ground-level.
A: But what we need on the ground, where do I set up my charging station, what kind of vehicles would be using electric chargers, what are their movement patterns etc, I think these are the very ground-level things which are yet to be managed. We are still above the ground, if we do not get there, we won’t see to many things happening there.
Today, the only groups where I see things moving to some extent are fleets. In terms of fleets, there is an economic advantage to convert them into electric as they travel a longer distance. So, when they travel long distance there is an economic advantage in moving to electric. They have the advantage of setting up their own charging facilities, they do not ask who is going to pay for the charging facility. Overall the life-cycle cost in electric tends to get a little cheaper, that is why fleets are doing well.
But we have to go beyond fleets. A problem that we see in India, especially in buses, is that one electric bus costs over a crore whereas normal buses cost about 35 lakhs. So the capital costs are so high at a time when cities are under pressure to have more buses on the roads I have a feeling that they are going to be hard-pressed in bringing in more e-buses in today’s situation. Particularly post the pandemic, they must have gone through three months without passengers, they would have paid their staff, the fuel they would have certainly saved but at least 40 percent of the cost that they incur, they would have been incurring with zero revenue. So, they all are hard-pressed for money so asking them to invest in electric buses is going to be really challenging. We have to come up with an option for them to really move to e-buses with a significantly higher share of capital cost coming from some kind of public fund and giving them the benefit of low operating cost to make some of that difference. This is where I think the bus system would be.
Q: According to the World Economic Forum article, China emits over 50 percent of the total nitrogen oxide of Asia. Each tonne of NO2 emitted in the pandemic is the result of removing 62 cars from the road, so we could estimate that over China even a moderate 10 percent reduction in NO2 emission is equivalent to taking 48,000 cars off the road, that’s an indication of what could be achieved permanently for air quality if ICE vehicles are phased down and replaced by electric-powered mass transit system but electric vehicles are as clean as the electricity that powers them. The recent improvement in air quality could be made permanent by replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy and other low-carbon resources?
A: Speaking of clean energy, to my mind, the talk of clean transport will not be complete unless we talk of clean energy along with clean transport. I am a great believer in clean energy and clean transport being planned together. I think there is a win-win situation if both of them are planned together. Unfortunately, what we see is that the power department is not in sync with the transport department, at least, not to the extent that it needs to be. Take, for example, the Ministry of Power has come up with the initiative of installing charging stations, but no one has told them where to set it up. If there are set up in location where they have land available nobody uses that charging station for charging, I think charging station needs to be installed in places where there is a need for vehicles to be charged, these too, cannot be out of sync. Otherwise, we will see charging stations coming up in places where they are not being used and there will be need for charging station in places where they are not placed.
That is why, two of them coming together is extremely important.
The second reason they need to come together is storage.
For clean energy storage is a big challenge but most personal vehicle are stationary for 90 percent of the time, for the time they are stationary, can those batteries not serve as storage? You have a sort-of mobile device which is stationary for 95 percent of the time can be an excellent storage. So, I think somehow these two coming together can really be a win-win situation for both, but we need to plan for them together. It cannot be in isolation. That’s where I feel the success for clean technology of transportation has to be driven by some kind of an electric mobility mission or clean mission which brings together people from multiple agencies, works under a higher level reporting responsibility and they are the one who can really bringing this forward. To my mind a clean mobility mission is the need of the day in the country.
Jeevtronics— a Pune-based startup has developed India’s and probably the world’s first dual powered hospital-grade defibrillator. Defibrillators are mandatory in all nursing homes and is a critical instrument in ICUs and ambulances. In India, these devices are majorly imported, and many small nursing homes use refurbished devices to meet the regulation requirements, however, there is a possibility of device malfunctioning due to various reasons.
Emerging Tech Radio host Netra Walawalkar spoke with Aniruddha Atre and Ashish Gawade, cofounder of Jeevtronics. Both Ashish and Aniruddha have experience of working with Global automobile company Ford in North America and they have been passionate about developing triple-bottom-line business that positively impact on environment and people at the bottom of the pyramid. With 21+ years of total industry experience working in the US and India, they bring a wealth of experience across product development, manufacturing, process management, strategy, and planning.
Please listen in from Ashish and Aniruddha about their journey: https://bit.ly/3iiyVpi
A: At Jeevtronics we have developed the world's first dual power defibrillator. A defibrillator is a device used to save a sudden cardiac arrest victim if the shock is delivered within 10-minutes of cardiac, attack. Therefore the window of opportunity to save someone's life is really small and hence it is very important to have this device available locally in ambulance, rural clinics, primary health care centers, and other places but how the challenge is: how do we make this device work in areas which have no electricity or intermittent electricity? So, what we have done is we have built a hand-cranked generator inside the device, just like you have a windmill, we can call it a hand-mill. You can rotate it real fast and you can save a life by delivering a shock within 10 sec or so.
We have around four patents around this technology and its designed to all the international standards. We have already passed the pre-compliance test for EU-C marking and in our testing, we have fired 16,000 shocks as a part of the durability testing and the device did not fail at that. Just to put this in perspective, a regular defibrillator that complies with ISE 6061-2-4 standards should fire 2,500 shocks but we have fired four times than the required international engineering standards demands.
Therefore, it is indeed world-class in quality, costs one-fourth to one-fifteenth of the big brand has a very long life, and never needs a battery. When everything else in the world has failed --such as your grid and your diesel generator Jeevtronics defibrillator will still work.
Q: The defibrillator is capable of functioning without electricity or battery and makes a strong case for rural India and remote places and ambulances. Do you also give training required to use the device?
A: There are two types are defibrillators. One is internal, which you put inside the body after surgery and there is an external which is in ambulances or hospital. This is external, within that we have the automatic and hospital-grade, ambulance-grade defibrillator. And, this is to be used by trained personnel only -- they being doctors, nurses and EMD technicians and indeed they have training but in addition, we also train people in the use of our specific device when we go to install the device, in that they are also familiar and confident whenever they have to use the device.
Q: What has been your experience with rural installation?
A: In so far we have an installation in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan. There are tier-II, tier-III towns, small hospitals where it has been used and we have reports from three hospitals so far that they delivered a shock using our defibrillator and saved cardiac arrest patients.
Q: Can you share about your current team and its business operations
A: We are a 10 people team as of today, and we have inhouse R&D team and manufacturing function where are the parts are fully designed and manufactured by Jeevtronics. We are also manufacturing the final product, we think like a car company in this regard, where the tire is not made by the car company but sourced from a vendor as per its specifications. Similarly, we do not have machines that manufacture individuals components to save on high capital investment but we source all the parts and components and put them together. We source from ISO-qualified sources built to our standards of quality and also to international std of ICE-6061 standards for the defibrillator. We source, we put together final device in assembly, testing, quality control, and then packaging.
Q: Being from an engineering background, working in the auto industry in the U.S. What really led you two to develop a healthcare device? What is the story behind startup?
A: We are sadhak (followers) of Manushakti Research Center, Lonavla and the founders of the center used to say that apart from what you do for livelihood you need to do at least one hour of Seva (self-less activity) per day. We used to wonder how to do it full time without becoming ascetic so when were studying at the University of Michigan Ann Arbour in the United States, we took a class with professor C.K.Pralhad. He talked about stories wherein someone innovated for the people at the bottom of the pyramid and had a humanitarian impact on a large scale, these were the kind of stories that inspired us and so we came back to India and we developed several products. One was a human-powered generator for lighting then we also did solar lamps, and after that, there came an idea about powering defibrillator in rural India and rural Africa. So, when we looked at the idea we thought, this is something that is dear to our heart and it is in line with our philosophy so we’ll take up as a challenge. We worked on it and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, Department of Electronics, and Indo-US Science and Technology Fund Forum -- the bi-national fund supported by the GoI and Government of United States they both supported us in this initiative and at the end of this journey we had a defibrillator that is designed to world-class standards, costs little, never needs a battery replacement and can save a life. It has already begun saving lives here and there.
Q: Has it been challenging for you to change the track from engineering to the healthcare industry?
A: As in the case of any new product development it could be from any industry it is always a challenge but an innovator always likes to take challenges. We have previous experience of working in the automotive sector and developing a product at scale so a lot of our previous expertise in integration and product development came in very handy in this product development and our journey so far. Along with that, we put together a team that was capable in their areas, so it's a team effort so a lot of skill sets that have come together eventually to reach this stage.
Q: How many of these devices have reached the market so far?
A: As of today 65 devices are on the field across Maharashtra, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Q: With the current COVID-19 situation, how’s the demand? Has demand gone up significantly for defibrillators right now?
A: The demand is infinite right now. We keep hearing about ventilators. Similar to ventilator, defibrillator is also required in every ICU hospitals, the demand is huge the challenge is on the supply-side because of the lockdown as some parts are difficult to procure so the supply chain currently is difficult to manage.
Q: How are you managing manufacturing at this time?
A: It has been challenging in terms of the mobility of people and goods. We are based in a part of the Pune city which has been under lockdown so employees cannot move about from one containment zone to another. We have sought permission from authorities so we can continue work. As medical device manufacturing, we are essential service providers, so we are exempt from the order however the challenge remains on the supply-side.
Q: Do you also see opportunities come up in these difficult times?
A: Yes, because of COVID-19 there has been an increased awareness about healthcare, in terms of the need for good infrastructure, health care insurance, and others. Now because of COVID-19, there is heightened awareness which is giving rise to several opportunities and many innovators are coming up with innovative ideas to solve these problems. They have come up with devices, diagnostics, and even drugs. There are new opportunities in the repurposing of technology and techniques and many task forces are currently working on existing drug or molecules that is used for one disease that could be used to cure another. Similarly in devices also we see several opportunities. So there a lot of opportunities, overall in terms of strengthening the health infrastructure and this is a good development for a country like India.
Q: What are your plans on expansion? Are you also looking at raising funds right now?
A: Yes, indeed. We need to work on two-three major fronts. One is, we need to really speed our manufacturing to increase our capacity so that we are able to cater to the needs of society. We are flooded with inquiries outside of India, like Thailand, Bangladesh, and others Second is, we need to hire in-house, assembly workers, and quality engineers. Once COVID-19 has passed us and present demand reduces as business goes to its usual pace it would be important to have a presence across India, and then we will have to have a large sales force. So, all of this will definitely require capital so we are looking to raise funds. We would like one-and-a-half million dollars but we can go in steps and accept smaller tranches too and when funds become available.
India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s nine-minute lights-out call was met with resounding support on April 5, 2020. PM Modi had urged Indian citizens to switch off lights at their homes and light up candles, lamps, and mobile phones in a display of solidarity and the country's ‘collective resolve’ to defeat coronavirus.
While there were apprehensions about the negative impact on the grid due to the sudden drop and spurt in demand following the event, the Indian power utilities along with national and state load despatch centres ensured grid operations remained smooth and uninterrupted throughout the country.
So, how did India’s grid successfully manage a load drop of 31 GW on the night of April 5, for nine minutes? Emerging Tech Radio host Netra Walawalkar spoke with B B Mehta, Chief Engineer, SLDC at Gujarat Energy Transmission Corp Ltd (GETCO) to understand what went behind the scenes in managing this unprecedented event successfully.
Listen to the podcast here: https://bit.ly/2Z2iUN1
Q: Can you share how the load despatch centre prepared for the event and coordinated it. What were some of the planning and projections around the event?
It was a great event. Practically, grid operators are habituated in managing such grid vulnerability on a day-to-day basis however the challenge here was that it was a pan-India event. It was going to be held at the same time for the same time (nine minutes) across India so it was important to have meticulous and precise planning in that aspect.
It was a large-scale distributed operation but in one way it is integrated also.
Electricity is a concurrent subject in our country, it is not only looked after by the states but also the central government. All the states were working in a low demand scenario since the lockdown was announced in the country. The general power requirement of the country has already fallen by 40 percent to 50 percent and amid that, there was a massive event by the people where people were going to have lights out at 21:00 hours for 9 minutes on April 5.
To cope up with that contingency we did a detailed analysis with different stakeholders in the power sector. As you may know, electricity cannot be stored so we need to generate just the amount we want to use and if you don't want to use it then you have to switch off the generation or reduce it. Now, for that we need to have a response time of the generator which is analogous with the goal given by Hon’ble PM; so the fast ramping or fast response devices in generation segment is hydro & Gas power plant and others so they have been called upon a couple of hours before the announcement of the program and they were to act as per the plan. They were informed that there needs to less gap between the power that is being generated and the power that is demanded either on the plus side or the minus side. So, we had a detailed meeting with our generation stations, with regional despatch centre then we had national meetings by the POSOCO and SLDCs, all the SLDCs connected through video conference, and lots of statistical details were prepared and shared.
We probably went wrong in some of the places, initially with respect to Gujarat we submitted a drop of 12,500 MW but probably our regional load and national drop came around 700 MW to 800 MW only. By and large, there was an idea that there will be a load drop of 12,500 MW but we all went wrong, when it took place, we had around 31,000 MW load drop.
With respect to preparation, we identified the team which will do each operation, we put perfect people on those teams and at power stations and sub-stations. Our protection team was on its toes, for voltage control our sub-SLDC was trapped on time and with that level of precise planning, we were ready to meet the challenge on the day of April 5.
Q: How exactly was the operation managed during the nine-minute event on April 5?
It was very precisely planned as to who will contribute to the management of the grid variation. Say, the grid is having some baseload and there was some delta factor which is going to vary during the nine-minute window, which plant will play a role to control that dynamic so that hydro station was informed and put on mark an hour before the start of the event. They were operating at an MW-level as per what is planned by the regional load despatch centre and as soon as the load started to fall, they promptly responded by reducing their generation so as to have the net balance remain as is. As soon as the load dropped, the frequency shot up to some 50-point level but by that time the generation was drastically reduced to ensure it does not go beyond the limit.
Further, once the event was over, instructions were passed as to who will pick up how much generation to ensure there is no hue-and-cry over any imbalance or mismatch. They acted very promptly and all power plants who participated in the event were part of the video conference and it was a seamless transfer of information. Overall, it was a very tightly integrated approach and there were no more deviations beyond the standards and the grid code and we could manage it very promptly.
Q: As we see, this event was planned and scheduled and still unprecedented in the history of the power grid, what are some of the learning from this event?
An important lesson is that our action plan for mitigating these contingencies should be more precise. We should have a more detailed study of the load and the component because, as you see, it was anticipated 12,500 MW but it went up to 31,000 MW drop. Further, we had a strict advisory from the government that other states should not face any problems because of us, so we had double back up.
We could curtail wind generation when frequency crossed about 50.2, it was about 600 MW wind generation immediately shut off and it was planned, advanced intimation was given to the wind generation station and on one call they immediately operated it. We had taken the help of agriculture load too, some of the [agriculture] load was going to switch off just before 21:00 hours on the day of the event so as to have more inertia on the load of the demand. For some of the agriculture power which was scheduled to start after 21:00 hours we preponed them, we told farmers they will get power half an hour early so that there is less load drop from the grid point of view and overall grid management will become easier.
Another learning is that we should take the help of these dynamics, this may not be available to distribution companies serving only urban cities like Delhi or Mumbai but for large state discoms this was one of the good opportunities. Another learning is that we still need to have a more flexible generation at our disposal to mitigate such events in case such contingency arises in the future.
Q: Since 2011 the Regulatory Commission has talked on tightening the frequency band but there has been no firm step taken in this regard, what are your comments on that.
No, they have been tightened the band a little but ultimately frequency is a benchmark that indicates the balance between the generation and load.
Today what happens is that the load is not in my control, everyone is free and flexible to use power as per his convenience, so the requirement of power is not in the hands of the grid control operator anymore. Generation was under the control of the grid control operator, but it seems to have declined over the last decade as the portfolio of renewable has increased. What has happened is there is limited control of renewable as we do not know how much renewable will be harnessed. Now, there are some forecast regulations but those regulations itself have a lot of loopholes. Say, there is a percentage error formula that does not match with the conventional power percentage error formula. There is already an open band with respect to Gujarat say there is up till 12 percent zero penalty. So, if I have 8000 MW portfolio of renewables to manage but I cannot vary more than 250 MW, that is one of my boundaries, that is also one of the regulation.
Therefore, to me, there is a huge mismatch between the regulation being planned. They may have the idea to give incentives and promote renewables, but electricity follows some law, and renewable does not follow different law and conventional does not follow some different law.
So, with respect to the management of the grid, our rules should be analogous with each other, the amount of penalty can be different. One more thing, we knew that promoting a type of generation say renewable, is going to have huge vulnerability, variability, or uncertainty but we are not planning any balancing mechanism and we are asking grid to do plus-and-minus 250 MW at SLDC-level.
Frankly speaking, we have planned 175 GW, but we never plan any gigawatts for balancing. Now, they are planning 450 GW, but I do not see any associate planning for balancing with that. If you know you are planning something intermittent, seasonal, or variable, but we are not planning to counterbalance that type of source, that creates a lot of problems with respect to the grid operation. Therefore, we need to take a call.
Unfortunately, due to the lockdown, the demand has fallen but renewable or wind remains as it is.
One other important thing was the real market operations date, it has been delayed by two months, it was supposed to be started by April 1 and I am surprised as to why that has happened.
So administratively, at the policymaking level, we need to take a call that we have homogeneous synchronous planning, regulations, and policy that supports grid operations in the true spirit.
Q: Yes, the real market operations date is now postponed to June 1, and so discoms and generators will get one more avenue of managing their schedule with real-time market starting and that will help to manage charges and penalty but how do you see the role of energy storage in grid management?
Energy management and energy storage is the need of the hour. I already mentioned that we have missed the bus planning about storage and balancing device. We need to take a call for promoting storage.
Today what happens is, suppose someone wants to plan a 10 MW storage he has to think about CAPEX, as soon as he is the member of the grid he has to pay the transmission charges, who will bear that cost? These are some of the problems that need to be addressed.
And some of the storage mechanism which is already with us like pumped board hydro station; probably across pan-India more than 4000 MW pumped board hydro station which is constructed, technically tested, but not in operations due to administrative or small technical issue so people are talking storage but people are not taking actions, there is still no road map that is that being prepared.
Q: What are your thoughts on battery energy storage system?
I think somebody has to take the call. If you remember the history of solar, the state of Gujarat during 2008-09 we invited and paid ₹15 tariff for the solar. Similarly, if we want to grow towards a new technology today, somebody has to pay the high cost then the research will take place, the industry will take shape, and someone will come with a lower-and lower tariff. Say pan-India I do not think we have more than 100-200 MW of storage solutions in service or under construction. Say, we have a 3000 MW grid and we do not give 300 MW storage solution under implementation here, so somebody should take the call. If the required viability gap fund can be utilized, but we need it.
Storage in lieu of the penalty of renewable; my point is why do we have that ‘penalty thinking’. My thinking is storage in lieu of balancing the dispatch of the renewable, if you think and talk in that sense then there will a huge quantum, and balancing requirement will be justified, and the course can be determined later.
Today, what happens is every state regulator is first keen to know what is the penalty of renewable and whether the storage solutions fit in that or not, so the RE developer is happy to bear the penalty and not go for storage. That is not the system need, it is a commerce/economic requirement.
My requirement is very simple, if I have a variation of wind, a 1000 MW every day, almost 250 days in a year then I need to have at least 300 MW of storage then I can mitigate something. But then, people start asking how many penalties it can raise? How much impact on your grid? I say, if 1000 MW variation is already there then we should at least have 1/3rd of that for balancing, and to keep it operational wherever the support is required it should be granted.
Large transmission projects have a huge impact on the tariff of the distribution company, whether the project is taken up by the CTO or the STO but that is being granted because it is essential for the transmission of power from one place to another. My plea is that balancing is also an important element of the grid to maintain the grid discipline and to operate the grid within the desirable hygiene.
Last, but not the least, I’d add the event was a great challenge for us, but it was a large distributed operation with one integrated theme: let us all control the grid. And, we have all been successful.
For more on the latest industry conversation and expert insights tune into Emerging Tech Radio on Soundcloud.
Status quo analysis of various segments of electric mobility and low carbon passenger road transport in India
On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Nationally Determined Contribution-Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) is a joint project of seven organisations and with the engagement of China, India, and Vietnam.
This report has been prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with support from the U.S. Department of State to inform a broader dialogue around the future direction of India’s approach to enabling energy storage investments.
MNRE series guidelines
MNRE has issued Guidelines for series approval of Storage Batteries for conducting testing in test LabsRead More
Comments/voting on IEC TC 120- BIS
Draft International Standards for Member Body voting. BIS invites comments on the followingRead More