Energy Storage Applications

Energy Storage Applications

Energy Storage Technologies can have wide applications across the grid, from Generation, Transmission and Distribution as well as behind the meter applications particularly for Commercial & Industrial (C&I) customers.

Electrochemical Energy Storage Non-Electrochemical Energy Storage

Energy Storage technologies can be grouped as electrochemical and non-electrochemical EES technologies. The most common EES technologies are:

  • Advanced Lead Acid Battery
  • Flow Batteries
    • Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB)
    • Zinc Bromine Battery (ZnBr)
    • Other Redox flow batteries
  • Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Battery
    • Li Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)
    • Li Titanate (LT)
    • Li- Cobalt Oxide (LCO)
    • Li- Manganese Oxide (LMO)
    • Li-Nickel manganese Cobalt (NMC)
    • Li Polymer
    • Li Air
    • Other Li based chemistries
  • Nickel based batteries
    • Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery
    • Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMh) Battery
    • Nickel Zinc (NiZn)battery
  • Sodium based batteries
    • Sodium-Sulfur battery (NaS)
    • Sodium metal Halide battery
    • Sodium Ion battery
  • Other emerging electrochemistry’s
    • Metal Air
  • Pumped Hydroelectric
    • Conventional
    • Under ground
  • Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
    • Conventional
    • Adiabatic
    • Isothermal
    • Under water
  • Thermal Storage
    • Heat
    • Cold / Ice
  • Gravity based storage systems
  • Flywheel
  • Ultra-Capacitor
  • Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)

Chart below shows a comparison of energy and power rating of various storage technologies deployed as of 2008.


Although all of these technologies are viable for utility-scale systems, some are believed to have more potential than others. Following chart shows, comparison of various energy storage technologies based on energy vs power rating of currently installed systems.

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